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Colonial and Revolutionary History of Upper South Carolina

COLONIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY HISTORY

OF UPPER SOUTH CAROLINA,

EMBRACING FOR THE MOST PART THE PRIMITIVE AND COLONIAL HISTORY OF THE TERRITORY COMPRIS ING THE ORIGINAL COUNTY OF SPARTANBURG WITH A GENERAL REVIEW OF THE EN TIRE MILITARY OPERATIONS IN THE UPPER PORTION OF SOUTH CARO- LINA AND PORTIONS OF NORTH CAROLINA.

BY

DR. J. B. O. LANDRUM.

This 384 page book contains five sketches (maps) and a 7 page index. It is primarily about the Revolutionary War in the Upper part of South Carolina but it also contains brief sketches of the people engaged in those battles.

Table of Contents: OUR COUNTRY AS IT WAS. ITS NATURAL CHARACTERISTICS. ITS BEAUTY OF SCENERY. ITS ABUNDANCE OF GAME, ETC.

THE FIRST PEOPLE OF OUR COUNTRY. THE CHEROKEE INDIAN. HIS HABITS, CHARACTERISTICS, ETC. CHANGE FROM PROPRIETARY TO ROYAL AUTHORITY. TREATY OF SIR ALEXANDER CUMMING WITH THE CHEROKEE INDIANS. THE FORERUNNERS OF CIVILIZATION. THE STOCKMEN. COW PENS MEN. INDIAN TRADERS, ETC.

TREATY OF GOVERNOR GLEN WITH THE CHEROKEE INDIANS. THE FIRST SETTLERS OF UPPER CAROLINA UNEXPECTED OUTBREAK AND MASSACRES BY THE INDIANS ON THE BORDERS.

FORT PRINCE AND OTHER FORTS. BLACKSTOCK ROAD. CHEROKEE WAR CONTINUED. ENDING OF THE SAME. RENEWED PROSPERITY OF THE COUNTRY, &c.

INTRODUCTORY TO THE BREAKING OUT OF THE REVOLUTION.

INTRIGUE OF GOVERNOR CAMPBELL WITH THE PEOPLE OF THE BACK COUNTRY. COMMISSIONERS SENT BY COUNCIL OF SAFETY TO THE UP COUNTRY.

THE ASSEMBLING OF THE KINGS MEN. MR. DRAYTON IS SUES A PROCLAMATION. RESORTS TO OTHER MEANS THAN DISCOURSES. THE MILITIA AND RANGERS RALLY TO HIS AID

CAPTAIN ROBERT CUNNINGHAM ARRESTED AND CARRIED TO CHARLESTOWN AND INCARCERATED CAPTURE OF ONE THOUSAND POUNDS OF POWDER BY PATRICK CUNNINGHAM WHILE ON ITS WAY TO THE CHEROKEE NATION. KING'S MEN MARCHING AGAINST MAJORS WILLIAMSON AND MASON WHO ARE BESEIGED IN STOCKADE FORTS AT NINETY SIX. TERMS OF CAPITULATION AGREED UPON.

THE FAMOUS SNOW CAMPAIGN.

PATRIOTISM OF EARLY SETTLERS OF SPARTANBURG AND UNION COUNTIES. INDIAN OUTRAGES, 1776.

LETTER FROM PROF. MORRISON INDIAN INVASIONS AND MASSACRES OF 1776 CONTINUED. HANNON MASSACRE. MURDER OF MR. ANDERSON AND OTHERS. MAJOR HOWARDS VICTORY OVER "BIG WARRIOR" AT ROUND MOUNTAIN. MAJOR WILLIAMSONS CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE CHEROKEES 1N 1776.

INTERVAL OF QUIET. PROPOSITIONS FOR PEACE WHICH ARE REJECTED. BRITISH RENEW THEIR EFFORTS TO CONQUER THE PROVINCE. GENERAL LINCOLN IS APPOINTED BY THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS TO TAKE COMMAND OF AMERICAN FORCES IN SOUTH CAROLINA HIS CAMPAIGN AND SURRENDER AT CHARLESTOWN, SOUTH CAROLINA. EXPEDITION OF MAJOR FERGUSON TO NINETY SIX DISTRICT. MANY INHABITANTS SEEK BRITISH PROTECTION, &c. RENEWING HOPES AND PREPARATIONS FOR DEFENSE.

FIRST BATTLE OF CEDAR SPRINGS. GENERAL UPRISING OF THE WHIGS. CONTINUED MARAUDING, PILLAGING, &c., BY FERGUSON AND HIS MEN THE BRITISH OUTPOSTS IN SUMMER, 1780. CONCENTRATION OF WHIG FORCES AT EARLES FORD AND CEDAR SPRING. RETREAT OF COLONEL JONES FROM GEORGIA. NIGHT ATTACK ON SMALL BODY OF TORIES AT GOWENS FORT.

SHELBY AND SEVIER UNITED WITH McDOWELL AT CHEROKEE FORD. COLONEL CLARKE RETREATS FROM GEORGIA AND JOINS SUMTERS COMMAND. CAPTURE OF THICKETY PORT.

SECOND BATTLE OF CEDAR SPRING OR WOFFORDS IRON WORKS. EXPEDITION AND BATTLE OF MUSGROVES MILL. SKETCH OF ISAAC SHELBY AND OTHERS.

SOUTH CAROLINA OVERRUN. BLOODTHIRSTY ORDERS OF CORNWALLIS TO CRUGER AT NINETY SIX. SHELBY, CLARKE AND WILLIAMS RETIRE TO NORTH CAROLINA. PROPOSITION TO RAISE AN ARMY ON BOTH SIDES OF THE MOUNTAINS. A STORM BEGINS TO GATHER. FERGUSON THE UNDISPUTED MASTER OF THE UP COUNTRY. HIS PLUNDERINGS. STORY OF DUNLAP. FERGUSON TARRIES AT GILBERTTOWN TO CUT OFF THE RETREAT OF COLONEL CLARKE FROM GEORGIA TO NORTH CAROLINA CRUELTY TO PRISONERS BELONGING TO CLARKES COMMAND SAMUEL PHILIPS PAROLED BY FERGUSON WITH A MESSAGE BY THE LATTER TO THE OVER MOUNTAIN PEOPLE. SHELBY AND SEVIER MEET AND CONFER. LETTERS AND MESSENGERS SENT TO COLONELS CAMPBELL, CLEVELAND AND OTHERS. AN EXPEDITION AGREED UPON.

GATHERING OF OTHER CLANS FOR THE EXPEDITION AGAINST FERGUSON COLONEL WILLIAMS COMMISSIONED A BRIGADIER GENERAL BY GOVERNOR RUTLEDGE. MOVEMENTS OF HILL, LACY AND WILLIAMS. ROUTE OF FERGUSON FROM GILBERTTOWN TO KING'S MOUNTAIN.

FURTHER MOVEMENTS OF OVER MOUNTAIN MEN. INFORMATION OBTAINED BY A SPY OF FERGUSONS MOVEMENTS. LACY VISITS IE CAMP OF THE OVER MOUNTAIN MEN. A SPECIAL MOUNTED FORCE SELECTED TO OVERTAKE FERGUSON. JUNCTION OF OVER MOUNTAIN MEN AT COWPENS WITH HILL, LACY, WILLIAMS AND GRAHAM. THE MARCH RESUMED AT NIGHT TO OVERTAKE FERGUSON BATTLE AND VICTORY AT KINGS MOUNTAIN, OCTOBER 7, I780 DEATH OF FERGUSON. DETAILS OF THE SURRENDER. INTERESTING INCIDENTS. THE WHIGS RETRACE THEIR MARCH WITH PRISONERS FROM KINGS MOUNTAIN TO NORTH CAROLINA, RESTING FOR A TIME AT GILBERTTOWN. EXECUTION OF COLONEL MILLS AND OTHERS AT BICKERSTAFFS. MARCH CONTINUED.

SKETCHES OF THE PROMINENT HEROES IN THE SCENES AT KINGS MOUNTAIN.

GENERAL WILLIAM CAMPBELL CORNWALLIS GROWS ALARMED FOR HIS SAFETY AFTER THE OVERTHROW AT KING'S MOUNTAIN. ABANDONS WHILE AT CHARLOTTE FURTHER INVASION OF NORTH CAROLINA RETURNS TO SOUTH CAROLINA AND ESTABLISHES CAMP AT WINNSBORO. BATTLE OF FISH DAM ON BROAD RIVER BATTLE O BLACKSTOCKS, NOVEMBER 20, 1780.

GENERAL GREENE RELIEVES GENERAL GATES AND ASSUMES COMMAND OF THE SOUTHERN DEPARTMENT. CONDITION, NUMBERS, &c., OF THE SOUTHERN ARMY. THE ARMY IS DIVIDED. GENERAL DANIEL MORGAN ASSUMES COMMAND OF ALL FORCES IN UPPER SOUTH CAROLINA GENERAL GATES RETURNS HOME THE WHIGS IN SOUTH CAROLINA THROW OFF BRITISH PROTECTION AND RALLY UNDER COLONEL ANDREW PICKENS. COLONEL WASHINGTON ATTACKS AND REPULSES A BODY OF LOYALISTS AT HAMMONDS STORE .MORGANS PERMANENT STAND ON THE PACOLET ALARMS CORNWALLIS FOR THE SAFETY OF NINETY-SIX. HE DETACHES TARLETON TO PUSH HIS ADVERSARY TO THE UTMOST. MORGANS REASONS FOR FIGHTING. TARLETON AND CORNWALLIS AGREE TO MARCH PARALLEL TO EACH OTHER, THE FORMER ON THE WEST SIDE, THE LATTER ON THE EAST SIDE OF BROAD RIVER. CORNWALLIS FAILURE TO MOVE AND REASONS THEREFOR

BATTLE OF COWPENS, JANUARY 17, 1781.

MORGAN RESOLVES TO RESUME HIS MARCH IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE BATTLE OF COWPENS. LEAVES PICKENS TO CARE FOR THE WOUNDED. PRISONERS SENT TO CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA MOVEMENTS OF THE ARMY OF CORNWALLIS. MORGAN CROSSES SHERRILLS FORD ON CATAWBA RIVER. CORNWALLIS FOLLOWS. RAPID RISE OF THE STREAM PREVENTS HIS CROSSING. GENERAL GREENE LEAVES HIS ARMY ON THE PER DEE AND JOINS MORGAN ON THE CATAWBA AND ASSUMES COMMAND. MORGAN RETREATS TO THE YADKIN. GENERAL GREENE REMAINS BEHIND TO COLLECT MILITIA. CORNWALLIS CROSSES THE CATAWBA. FALL OF DAVIDSON. TWO WINGS OF AMERICANS UNITE AT GUILFORD C. H. RETREAT ACROSS THE DAN. CORNWALLIS OUTSTRIPPED IN THE RACE

GENERAL REVIEW OF MILITARY OPERATIONS IN NORTH AND SOUTH CAROLINA. CORNWALLIS REPAIRS TO HILLSBOROUGH AND ERECTS A ROYAL STANDARD. INVITES THE INHABITANTS TO JOIN HIM GENERAL GREENE RE-CROSSES THE DAN AND MARCHES TO GUILFORD C. H. BATTLE OF GUILFORD. ITS EFFECTS. GENERAL GREENE RETIRES TO SPEEDWELLS IRON WORKS. CORNWALLIS RETREATS TO WILMINGTON. GREENE PURSUES TO RAMSEYS MILL. THE TWO ARMIES TURN BACK TO BACK. CORNWALLIS MARCHES TO VIRGINIA. GREENE RETURNS TO SOUTH CAROLINA. CAPTURE OF FORT WATSON. BATTLE OF HOBKIRK. RETREAT OF LORD RAWDEN. FALL OF ORANGEBURG, FORTE MOTTE AND GRANBY. SEIGE AND FALL OF AUGUSTA.

SIEGE OF NINETY SIX ADVANCE OF RAWDON. RETREAT OF GENERAL GREENE TO TIMS ORDINARY. RAWDON ABANDONS THE POST AT NINETY SIX AND RETREATS TO GRANBY, ON THE CONGAREE. STEWART MARCHES FROM ORANGEBURG TO MEET HIM. GENERAL GREENE ADVANCES TO GRANBY. RAWDON RETREATS. EXECUTION OF HAYNE. RAWDON LEAVES SOUTH CAROLINA. EUTAW SPRINGS NOTICED. OTHER INCIDENTS, &c.

THE "BLOODY BILLS," CUNNINGHAM AND BATES. EARLY YEARS OF WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM. VOLUNTEERS IN CAPTAIN CALDWELLS COMPANY. DESERTS THE AMERICAN CAUSE AND BECOMES AN ACTIVE PARTISAN ON THE BRITISH SIDE. MAKES A RAID TO THE UP COUNTRY IN NOVEMBER, 1781 UPRISING OF THE CHEROKEES. EXPEDITION OF GENERAL PICKENS TO THEIR COUNTRY THE CHEROKEES SUE FOR PEACE. CUNNINGHAM CONTINUES HIS BLOODY MARCH FROM ORANGEBURG THROUGH NEWBERRY, LAURENS, UNION, AND SPARTANBURG. MASSACRE AT THE TURNER HOUSE. MURDER OF CAPT. JOHN CALDWELL. MASSACRE AT "HAYES STATION." ESCAPE OF MR. JOHN BOVCE. CUNNINGHAM VISITS CHARLES MOORES PLACE. KILLING OF CAPTAIN STEADMAN AND TWO OTHERS. MURDER OF JOHN WOOD, EDWARD HAMPTON, JAMES WOOD, MR. LAWSON AND OTHERS CUNNINGHAM HASTILY RETREATS. IS PURSUED BY CAPTAINS JOHN MCCLURE, JOHN BARRY AND GENERAL PICKENS, AND HE RETREATS TO FLORIDA. " BLOODY BILL" BATES APPEARS IN THE VICINITY OF GOWENS FORT, ACCOMPANIED BY INDIANS AND BAD MEN. MASSACRE AT THOMSONS FORT AND MILLS STATION. MURDER OF THE MOTLEY FAMILY. BATES BECOMES A HORSE THIEF. IS CAPTURED AFTER THE REVOLUTION AND CARRIED TO GREENVILLE. IS SHOT BY YOUNG MOTLEY. INDEX: Abbett, Adair, Alexander, Allaire, Allen, Alverson, Anderson, Andre, Andrew, Appleton, Archer, Armstrong, Arnold, Attakulla Kulla, Austell, Bacon, Bagwell, Bailey, Baldwin, Ballard, Ballenger, Banroff, Barnett, Barry, Barrys, Barton, Bates, Baxter, Baylor, Bearden, Beason, Beattie, Beene, Beicher, Bell, Bennell, Benton, Berry, Bickerstaff, Biddy, Bishop, Biter, Blackstock, Blackstocks, Blassingame, Bobo, Bomar, Bonner, Boone, Bostick, Botta, Bowie, Boyce, Boyd, Braddock, Brandon, Brannon, Bratton, Brice, Bright, Brown, Browning, Bruton, Bryalit, Bryan, Buchannon, Buck, Buffington, Buford, Burke, Burnet, Burnett, Burns, Burrel, Burton, Bush, Butler, Byars, Caldwell, Caldwells, Calhoun, Cambridge, Cameron, Camp, Campbell, Candler, Cannon, Carl, Carlisle, Carrington, Carrol, Casey, Casselberry, Caswell, Central, Chambers, Chandler, Chapman, Chesney, Chew, Childers, Chitwood, Choice, Chronicle, Chuloch Culla, Clark, Clarke, Clary, Clayton, Cleveland, Clinton, Cocke, Coffee, Coffin, Cole, Colleton, Collins, Colvill, Compton, Conway, Cook, Cooper, Cope, Copeland, Corn Stalk, Cornwallis, Cotymore, Couch, Cowen, Cowls, Cox, Crawford, Crockor, Crow, Crowder, Cruger, Culberson, Culbertson, Cumming, Cunningham, Cunninghams, Cusack, Dalrymple, Daniel, Davidson, Davie, Davis, DE PEYSTER, Dean, DePeyster, DEstang, Dewberry, Dickerson, Dickinson, Dickson, Dill, Dillard, Doak, Dodd, Dodson, Dooly, Draper, Drayton, Drummond, Dun, Duncan, Duncanson, Dunlap, Dunmore, Dunn, Duval, Earle, Eaton, Edmondson, Edwards, Eggleston, Elder, Ellet, Elliott, Epsey, Evans, Even, Ewing, Ezell, Fairfield, Fanning, Farrow, Faust, Ferguson, Ferris, Fielder, Fields, Finch, Fisher, Fletchall, Floyd, Ford, Forney, Foster, Foudren, Fowler, Franklin, Franks, Fraser, Freeman, Frey, Gage, Garnett, Gaston, Gates, Geiger, Geigier, Gentry, Gibbs, Gibson, Gilbert, Giles, Gilkey, Gillespie, Gilley, Gilliland, Gilmer, Glen, Golden, Golightly, Goodlett, Goodloe, Goodman, Gordon, Gowen, Graham, Granby, Grant, Graves, Gray, Green, Greene, Greenling, Greer, Grierson, Griffin, Griffith, Grimball, Grimes, Hagood, Hambright, Hammett, Hammond, Hampton, Hamptons, Hancock, Hanger, Hanna, Hannon, Hardin, Hardy, Harmon, Harris, Harrison, Hart, Hathorne, Hawk, Hawkins, Hawsey, Hayes, Hayne, Haynsworth, Hays, Haywood, Headley, Henderson, Henry, Herndon, Hightower, Hill, Hilliard, Hobbs, Holloway, Hops, Horry, Howard, Howe, Howell, Hoy, Huger, Hughes, Hunt, Hurt, Husband, Hyrne, Inman, Innes, Irby, Irving, Irwin, Jackson, Jeffries, Jenkins, Jennings, Johnson, Jones, Jordan, Keer, Kelly, Kelsey, Kennedy, Kerr, Kershaw, Kirby, Kirkland, Knox, Kosciusko, Lacy, LaFayette, Lafferty, Lambright, Lancaster, Landford, Landrum, Laurens, Lawrence, Lawson, Leach, Lee, Lemaster, Lenoir, Leslie, Lewis, Lincoln, Lipscomb, Littlejohn, Littleton, Logan, Lowe, Lyles, Madison, Maham, Marion, Martin, Mason, Matthews, Mattocks, Maxwell, Mayfield, Mayhew, Mayson, McAbee, McAboy, McCall, McClure, McCombs, McCrea, McDowell, McDowells, McFall, McGowan, McIlhaney, McJunkin, McKay, McKensie, McLauren, McMakin, McMillen, McPherson, McRea, McWilliams, Means, Middleton, Miller, Mills, Milven, Mintz, Mobley, Monroe, Montgomery, Moore, Moores, Morgan, Morrell, Morris, Morrison, Motley, Mott, Motte, Moultrie, Moy Toy, Muffin, Murphy, Murry, Musgrove, Myer, Nash, Neal, Neel, Neil, Nelson, Nesbitt, Newman, Nichols, Nicholson, Oats, OHara, Orr, Page, Paris, Park, Pearis, Pearson, Pedan, Pendleton, Perry, Petty, Philips, Pickens, Pinckney, Pinketham, Plummer, Polk, Pollard, Ponder, Pool, Poole, Postel, Powell, Preston, Prevost, Price, Prince, Pulaski, Quinns, Rainwaters, Ramsay, Ramsey, Randall, Randolph, Rapley, Rawdon, Ray, Read, Reed, Reid, Rhodes, Richardson, Riddle, Roberts, Robertson, Robinson, Roddy, Roebuck, Rogers, Rose, Ross, Rudolph, Russell, Rutherford, Rutledge, Sabine., Saunders, Savages, Saxon, Saye, Schenck, Schuyuka, Scruggs, Sealey, Selden, Sevier, Shatteen, Shelby, Sherrill, Shields, Shuburg, Simmons, Simms, Sims, Singleton, Smith, Snoddy, Steadman, Steel, Steele, Steen, Stewart, Stillman, Stone, Stuart, Summers, Sumpter, Sumter, Sunderland, Surratt, Swain, Tapp, Tarleton, Tarrant, Tate, Taylor, Tennant, Terry, Thackston, Thomas, Thomason, Thomson, Timmons, Tinsley, Tipton, Todd, Tolleson, Trail, Trimmier, Triplet, Tuck, Turner, Twiggs, Twitty, Underwood, Vance, Varner, Vaughn, Vernon, Wakefield, Walden, Waldrop, Walker, Wallace, Ward, Washington, Waters, Watkins, Watson, Wayne, Webster, Wells, Wemyss, Wescott, West, Westmoreland, Wheeler, White, Whittaker, Wilkens, Wilkerson, Wilkes, Williams, Williamson, Wilson, Wingo, Winn, Winsmith, Winston, Wofford, Wood, Woodruff, Woods, Wylie, Young,